Journal Covers



Cox S.M, De Boef, A., Salzano, M.Q., Katugam, K., Piazza, S.J., Rubenson, J. (2021). Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth.  J. Exp. Biol. 1;224(21):jeb242694. doi: 10.1242/jeb.242694. PMID: 34522962. (PDF)


Katugam, K., Cox S.M, Salzano, M.Q., De Boef, A., Neuberger, T., Ryan, T.R., Piazza, S.J., Rubenson, J. (2020). Altering the mechanical load environment during growth does not affect adult Achilles tendon properties in an avian bipedal model.  Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 8:994. (PDF)

Cox, S.M., Salzano, M.Q., Piazza, S.J., Rubenson, J. Eliminating high-intensity activity during growth reduces mechanical power capacity but not sub-maximal metabolic cost in a bipedal animal model. (2020). J. Appl. Physiol. 128 (1): 50-8. (PDF)


McDonald, K.A., Devaprakash, D., Rubenson, J. Is conservation of center of mass a priority in human walking? Insights from leg length asymmetry experiments. (2019). J. Exp. Biol. 222: doi: 10.1242/jeb.195172. (PDF)

McDonald, K.A., Cusumano, J.P., Peeling, P., Rubenson, J. Multi-objective control in human walking: insights gained through simultaneous degradation of energetic and motor regulation systems. (2019). J. R. Soc. Interface. 16: doi: 10.1098/rsif.2019.0227. (PDF)

Cox, S., Easton, K, Cromie, M., Marsh, R., Delp, S.,Rubenson, J.  The interaction of compliance and activation on the force-length operating range and force generating capacity of skeletal muscle: a computational study using a guinea fowl musculoskeletal model (2019). Integrative Organismal Biology, obz022, (PDF)


Cox, S.M., Rubenson, J., Sawicki, G.S. (2018). A soft-exosuit enables multi-scale analysis of wearable robotics in a bipedal animal model.  IEEE Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS. (PDF)

Pires, N.J, Lay, B., Rubenson, J. (2018). Modulation of joint and limb mechanical work in walk-to-run transition steps in humans. J. Exp. Biol. 221: 1-13. (PDF)

Salzano, M.Q., Cox, S.M., Piazza, S.J., Rubenson, J. (2018). American Society of Biomechanics Journal of Biomechanics Award 2017: High acceleration training during growth increases optimal muscle fascicle lengths in an avian bipedal model. J. Biomech. 80: 1-7. (PDF)

Bishop PJ, Graham DF, Lamas LP, Hutchinson JR, Rubenson J, Hancock JA, Wilson RS, Hocknull SA, Barrett RS, Lloyd DG, Clemente CJ. (2018). The influence of speed and size on avian terrestrial locomotor biomechanics: Predicting locomotion in extinct theropod dinosaurs. PLoS One. 21;13(2):e0192172. (PDF)


M Sartori, J Rubenson, DG Lloyd, D Farina, FA Panizzolo. (2017). Subject-Specificity via 3D Ultrasound and Personalized Musculoskeletal Modeling. Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation II, 639-642. (PDF)

Bishop PJ, Clemente CJ, Weems RE, Graham DF, Lamas LP, Hutchinson JR, Rubenson J, Wilson RS, Hocknull SA, Barrett RS, Lloyd DG. (2017). Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds. J R Soc Interface. 14(132). (PDF)

Xin Pang, Jian Ping Wu, Garry T Allison, Jiake Xu, David Smith, Rubenson, J., Ming-Hao Zheng, David G Lloyd, Bruce Gardiner, Allan Wang, Thomas Brett Kirk. (2016). The Three Dimensional Microstructural Network of Elastin, Collagen and Cells in Achilles Tendons. J. Orthop. Res. 35(6):1203-1214. (PDF)


Panizzolo, F.A., Maiorana, A.J., Naylor, L.H., Dembo, L., Lloyd, D.G., Green, D.J., Rubenson, J. (2016). Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients. PeerJ. Sep 15;4:e2447. (PDF)

Young, S.,  Gardiner, B.S., Mehdizadeh, A., Rubenson, J., Umberger, B.A., Smith, D.W. (2016). Adaptive remodeling of Achilles tendon: A multi-scale computational model. PLoS Comp. Biol. Sep 29;12(9):e1005106. (PDF)

McDonald, K.A., Stearne, S.M., Pires, N.J., North, I, Alderson, J.A., and Rubenson, J. (2016). The role of arch compression and metatarsophalangeal joint dynamics in modulating plantar fascia strain in running. PLoS ONE. Apr 7;11(4):e0152602. (PDF)

Stearne, S.M., McDonald, K.A., North, I, Oxnard, C.E., Alderson, J.A., and Rubenson, J. (2016). The foot’s arch and the energetics of human locomotion. Nature Scientific Reports. 6:19403, 1-10. (PDF)

Waldock, C., Milne, N., Rubenson, J., and Donnely, C.J. (2016). The use of geometric morphometric techniques to identify sexual dimorphism in gait. J. Appl. Biomech.32(5):441-8. (PDF)

Caulfield S., McDonald K.A., Dawson B., Stearne S.M., Green B.A., Rubenson J., Clemons T.D. and Peeling P. A. (2016).  Comparison of haemolytic responses in fore-foot and rear-foot distance runners. J. Sports Sci. 34:1485-90. (PDF)

Green, D.J, Panizzolo, F.A., Lloyd, D.G, Rubenson, J, and Maiorana, A.J. (2016). Soleus muscle function is a surrogate measure of health status in human heart failure. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 44: 45-50. (PDF)

Rankin, J.W., Rubenson, J. and Hutchinson, J.R. (2016) Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization. R. Soc. Lond. Interface. May;13(118). pii: 20160035. (PDF)


Hutchinson J.R., Rankin J.W., Rubenson J., Rosenbluth K.H., Siston R.A., Delp S.L. (2015). Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion. PeerJ 3:e1001 (PDF)

Wang, T., Ni, M.,Day, R.E., Gardiner, B.S., Landao-Bassonga, E., Rubenson, J., Kirk, T.B., Smith, D.W., Wang, A., Lloyd, D.G., Hardisty, G., Wang, Y., Zheng, Q., Zheng, M.H. and Lin, Z. (2015). Cyclical mechanical stimulation rescues rabbit Achilles tendon from loading deprivation in a bioreactor system. Journal Orthop. Res 33:1888-96. (PDF)

Nathan, D., Huynh, D.Q., Rubenson, J. and Rosenberg, M. (2015). Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect sensor in an exergaming environment. PLoS One. 10(5): 1-22. (PDF)

Rubenson, J. (2015). More than meat and a motor: the diverse biomechanical roles of skeletal muscle and their role in semi-living machines. Leonardo Journal / the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, MIT Press. 48: 176-7. (PDF)

Panizzolo, F.A., Maiorana, A.J., Naylor, L.H., Lichtwark, G.A., Dembo, L., Lloyd, D.G., Green, D.J., Rubenson, J. (2015). Is the soleus a sentinel muscle for impaired aerobic capacity in heart failure? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 47: 498-508. (PDF)


Pires, N.J., Lay, B. and Rubenson, J. (2014). Joint-level mechanical triggers for the walk-to-run transition in humans. J. Exp. Biol. 217: 3519-27. (PDF)

Panizzolo, F.A., Maiorana, A.J., Naylor, L.H., Dembo, L., Lloyd, D.G., Green, D.J., Rubenson, J. (2014). Gait analysis in chronic heart failure: The calf as a locus of impaired walking capacity. J Biomech. 47: 3719-25. (PDF)

Stearne, S.M., Alderson, J.A., Green, B., Donnely, C.J. and Rubenson, J. Joint kinetics in rearfoot vs. forefoot running: implications of switching technique. Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc. 46:1578-87. (PDF)


Panizzolo, F.A., Green, D.J., Lloyd, D.G., Maiorana, A.J. and Rubenson, J. (2013) Soleus fascicle length changes are conserved between young and old adults at their preferred walking speed. Gait and Posture. 38: 764-9. (PDF)

Smith, D.W., Rubenson, J., Lloyd, D.G., Zheng, M., Fernandez, J., Besier, T., Xu, J., Gardiner, B.S. (2013). A conceptual framework for computational models of Achilles tendon homeostasis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 5: 523-38. (PDF)

Wang, T., Lin, Z., Day, R., Gardner, B., Rubenson. J., Kirk, T.B., Smith, D.W., Lloyd, D.G., Hardisty, G., Wang, A. and Zheng, M.H. (2013). Programmable mechanical stimulation on tendon homeostasis in a bioreactor system. Biotechnol Bioeng. 110: 1495-507. (PDF)

Wang, T., Gardner, B., Lin, Z., Kirk, T.B., Rubenson. J., Wang, A., Hunter, P., Anderson, P., Xu, J., Daish, K., Smith, D.W., Lloyd, D.G., and Zheng, M.H. (2013). Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering. Tissue Eng. Part B. Rev. 19: 133-46. (PDF)

Haughton, L., Dawson, B., Rubenson, J. (2013). Achilles tendon mechanics after both prolonged continuous running and prolonged intermittent shuttle running. J. Appl. Biomech. 29: 453-62. (PDF)

Haughton, L., Dawson, B., Rubenson, J. (2013). Effects of plyometric training on Achilles tendon properties and shuttle running during a simulated cricket batting innings, J. Strength Cond. Res. 27: 1036-146. (PDF)


Rubenson, J., Pires, N.J., Loi, H.O., Pinniger, G.J., and Shannon, D. (2012). On the ascent: the soleus operating length is conserved to the ascending limb of the force length curve across gait mechanics in humans. J. Exp. Biol. 215: 3539-51. (PDF)


Rubenson, J., Heliams, B.D., Besier, T.F.,Lloyd, D.A., and Fournier, P.A. (2011). Adaptations for economical running: the effect of bipedal limb structure on 3-D joint mechanics. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 8: 740-55. (PDF)

Umberger, B.R. and Rubenson, J. (2011). Understanding muscle energetics in locomotion: New modeling and experimental approaches Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 39: 59-67. (PDF)

Park, D, Rubenson, J., Carr, A, Mattson, J, Besier, T.F., and Chou, L. (2011). The Influence of acute static stretching and warm-up on Achilles tendon material properties. Foot and Ankle Int. 32: 407-13. (PDF)

Carr, J.A., Ellerby, D.J., Rubenson, J., and Marsh, R.L. (2011). Mechanisms producing coordinated function across the breadth of a large biarticular thigh muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 114: 3396 – 404. (PDF)

Watson, R.R., Rubenson, J., Coder, L., Hoyt, D.F., Propert, M.W.G., and Marsh, R.L. (2011). Gait specific energetics contribute to economical walking and running in emus and ostriches. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 278: 2040-6. (PDF)

Haughton, L., Dawson, B., Rubenson, J., Tobin, M. (2011). Movement patterns and physiological strain during a novel, simulated cricket batting innings (BATEX), J. Sport. Sci. 29: 801-9. (PDF)

Haughton, L., Dawson, B., Rubenson, J. (2011). Performance in a simulated cricket batting innings (BATEX): Reliability and discrimination between playing standards. J. Sport. Sci. 29: 1097-103. (PDF)

2009 & Earlier

Rubenson, J. and Marsh, R.L. (2009). Mechanical efficiency of limb swing during walking and running in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). J. Appl. Physiol. 106: 1618–30. (PDF)

Rubenson, J., Heliams, B.D., Lloyd, D.A., Maloney, S.K., Withers, P.C. and Fournier, P.A. (2007). Reappraisal of the comparative cost of human locomotion using gait-specific allometric analyses. J. Exp. Biol. 210: 3513-24. (PDF)

Rubenson, J., Besier, T.F., Heliams, B.D., Lloyd, D.A., and Fournier, P.A. (2007). Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics. J. Exp. Biol. 210: 2548-62. (PDF)

Marsh, R.L., Ellerby, D.J., Henry, H.T. and Rubenson, J. (2006). The energetic cost of trunk and distal limb loading during walking and running in guinea fowl Numida meleagris. I. Organismal metabolism and biomechanics. J. Exp. Biol. 209: 2050-63. (PDF)

Rubenson, J., Henry, H.T., Dimoulas, P.M. and Marsh, R.L. (2006). The cost of running uphill: linking organismal and muscle energy use in guinea fowl Numida meleagris. J. Exp. Biol. 209: 2395-408. (PDF)

Rubenson, J., Heliams, B.D., Lloyd, D.A., and Fournier, P.A. (2004).   Gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial phase. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 271: 1091-9. (PDF)