Discovering the how and why of limbed locomotion

The MF+LL is seeks to understand how humans and other animals move, and why they move the way they do. We undertake basic research in the biomechanics, neuromechanics, and energetics of movement, both in humans and using a comparative approach. Our basic research informs clinical- and health-focused studies. We are particularly open to the possibilities that arise at the intersection of disciplines (e.g. in vivo muscle experiments, computational modelling, biomechatronics).

Latest News

  • Postdoctoral Research Position July 14, 2021
    Postdoctoral Position in Implantable Biomechatronic Muscle-Tendon Systems in Animal Models
  • 3-minute Thesis Award September 18, 2020
    Talayah Johnson and Kavya Katugam represent at the vASB2020 3-minute Thesis Competition!
  • New JAP paper November 28, 2019
    Our team, led by Suzanne Cox, studied the effect of eliminating high intensity movements during growth on adult locomotor function (in a bird model).
  • Guinea fowl OpenSim model November 28, 2019
    Suzanne Cox and co-authors publish their guinea fowl OpenSim model.

Latest Papers

Thomas, S. et al. (2023). An Implantable Variable Length Actuator for Assistive Muscle Force Application and Gait Rehabilitation in a Bipedal Animal Model. IEEE/RSJ Intelligent Robots and Systems 1410.

McDonald, K.A., et al. (2022). Humans trade off whole-body energy cost to avoid overburdening muscles while walking. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 289: 20221189; doi:

Rubenson J, Sawicki GS. (2022). Running birds reveal secrets for legged robot design. Science Robotics. Mar 16;7(64):eabo2147. doi: 10.1126/scirobotics.abo2147.

Cox S.M, et al. (2021). Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth. J. Exp. Biol. 1;224(21).

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